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Dr. Wissam Hussain

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تاريخ التسجيل : 17/10/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Health Education   الأربعاء مايو 19, 2010 4:48 am



Health Education
Who is a Health Educator?
Some people are specially trained to do Health Education work and those are referred to them as specialists, but since all health workers concerned with helping people to improve their health knowledge and skills, thus all health workers should practice Health Education in their jobs i.e. nurses, dispenser, PHC workers and physicians.
The practitioner must have full and intelligent of the opportunity of the doctor-patient relationships to give health education.
Phases of Health Education
There are three main phases of health education:-
1- Converging knowledge.
2- Changing attitude.
3- Altering behavior practice.
This is usually seen sequences of events in which people are first provided with information emphasize the benefits or the risks of particular action, as a result of this will change the attitude and will result in change in behavior to achieve the particular health educator goal.
Approaches of Health Education
There are three approaches:-
1- Educational approach.
2- Promotional approach.
3- Mixed approach.
However, many effective programs combine determines of both approaches, which may be most appropriate in many circumstances.
Individual Health Education program varies by:-
1- Target population.
2- Communication channels.
3- Degree of integration with other development activities,
4- Degree of comprehensiveness.
5- Responsibility and management.

Educational Approach
Aims of showing people to analyze and organize to change the condition that cause their poor health i.e. setting up the situation in which participants can make their own transformation.
This approach concentrate on community behavior, changing self confidence and problem solving capability that will enable a community to change conditions that lead to poor health, either individually or in cooperation with the government or other programs.
It's also depend on the facilitator (education) motivation or organization through discussions and meetings to help people to become aware of their situation and problem and to solve, organize and take action.
Because this role is difficult and time consuming, organization must be well trained and must spend sufficient time with each community.
This approach is currently supported strongly by the WHO.

Health Promotion Approach (social marketing)
Aims directly at changing specific health related behave i.e. aims transforming people attitudes and behavior change. This approach can be used to adopt specific behavior and too promote the use of specific products that will enhance people, so here people are considered as consumers of services rather than as a people to be educated.
Although there is no effort to direct the community through a process of learning and choosing its own priority, this approach is quite sensitive to the community's knowledge, attitude and behavior.
Community member helped to formulate the details of behavior recommended and the specific message to be given.
There are usually repeated consultations with individual in the target group that take place at each phase of the program development before determining objectives and designing messages, after consultation intended audience and grafting material but before disseminate them and introduction of new materials.

Mixed Approach
In most countries there are many more schools and teachers than health facilities and health workers, its seems clear that where substantial portion of school age children attend school and where health education authorities can collaborate effectively.
School health education should be important component of allover health education strategy under favorable conditions; educating school children support behavioral changes throughout the community.

Communication Channels
Education channels can be grouped as either:-
1- Person to person education.
2- Mass media.
Most programs use both channels through one or the other has been effective alone in some circumstances.
The channels or materials used should be appropriate for a particular program strategy, objective, resources and audience characteristics.
Unfortunately program often selects their channels and material before they have clearly considered these basic planning factors, so that those chosen or not always appropriate or well used.

Person to Person Communication
Ideally any contact between health personnel and public, provides an opportunity for discussion, person to person speech is the most effective of all methods of communication. It can be done individually between health personnel and the patient or to groups where the doctor can provide health lectures in the waiting room with feedback questions and discussion.
LIMITATIONS:-
1- There are no enough educators for the intensive personal contact needed on a mass scale.
2- Need good communication skills.
3- The communication may be ineffective if he is ill informed in sufficiently trained uses unsuitable approach or methods receive inadequate support, supervision and materials.
4- Person to person education carried out by paid workers is difficult to justify in term of cost effectiveness.


Mass Media Communication
The use of mass media has a number of potential advantages, its provide a rapid way to reach every large people, it makes good use of resources and manpower and it can be inexpensive at least in the terms of coast per person reached.
Its include: - slides and films,,, pamphlets and brochures,,, diagrams and posters,,, radio and TV,,, newspaper and internet.
LIMITATIONS
1- Mass media alone can't persuade to change deep attitudes and learn complete skills.
2- Can't know the required cultural linguistic and social background for each individual of the audience.
3- No feedback response can be received immediately that will help and assure that the messages are relevant, appropriate and understood by each individual or subgroup of the audience.
Messages aimed specific change must be:-
1- Easily understandable.
2- Consistent.
3- Culturally and socially acceptable and relevant.
4- Brief.
5- Offer particular advice.
6- Test with target population.

Causes of communication breakdown:-
1- Message is not reaching all.
2- Message is not being understood.
3- Message is misinterpreted.
4- Message makes conflict with existing knowledge, attitude and practice.
5- Message for expensive and/or unavailable application.
6- People may respond temporally with the message because they are disappointed with the result.


BARRIER OF HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMS
Theoretically behavior can be changed but the chances of actually doing it depend on assessing the factors that influence behavior and the designing an educational approach that can overcome any barrier identified.
Many educational efforts lack effectiveness because they fail to deal these barriers.
Barrier Includes:-
1- Difficult accommodation with prevalent cultural beliefs values and practices.
2- Lack of time, money, land, tools, freedom of choice motivation skills and cultural and legal support.
3- Values and traditions are often upheld strongly by elderly respected individual whose influence should be considered.

Overcoming Barriers:-
In any case, identifying and assessing the strength and the nature factors that may facilitate or help behavioral change is a critical aspect of health education and planning educational messages, channels and aids, should all be examined at the bases of these factors.
So overcoming barriers of Health Education should:-
1- Work with the community to identify social, economic or health barrier that are amenable to community modification.
2- Carefully designed educational strategies and messages so that they address barriers that are within the individual control.
3- Modify the proposed new behavior so that (at least) it can improve the situation even if it is not the ideal solution.
Planning steps in the communication components of Health Education programs:-
1- Identify the health or nutrition problems and the recommended solutions
2- Establish priorities.
3- Analyze the distinct educational message for each problem.
4- Pin point the target audience for each educational effort.
5- Uncover the resistance points to the desired behavior change, these might include psychological, cultural, economic and time barriers, as well as lack of fuel or other necessary materials.
6- Design the message to overcome the resistance.
7- Present the message should be understandable, believable, and ready received by audience.
8- Revise and retest the message where necessary.
9- Identify the most appropriate media pattern and weight from message delivery, as well as target audience reach.
10- Track the message impact and then revise the message to enhance the impact.
dr. Wissam Husain

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Health Education   الجمعة مايو 28, 2010 5:49 pm


Thanks Dear Dr.Wissam

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Health Education   السبت مايو 29, 2010 3:10 am


Thanks alot Dear Dr.Wissam for your nice issues

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